Learn Esperanto for a week (Part 1)

I’ve been using Esperanto For Americans, Duolingo and Lernu this week to gain a familiarity with the constructed international language Esperanto. Through association and recognizing similarities in other languages in Esperanto, it’s been fairly easy.

La Gramatiko- La vorto kaj la radiko (the grammar, the word and the root)
There are four word classes in Esperanto: Primary, Simple, Compound and Foreign.

La Artikulo- the article is always “La” and La Substantivo- the noun always ends in O
La Patro- the father, La lampo- the lamp, La plumo- the pen, La tablo- the table, La hundo- the dog, La papero- the paper

La fiziko estas scienco- Physics is a science
Tiel blanka kiel la neĝo- As white as snow
Venu je la oka hora- Come at 8 o’clock

No indefinite article- pomo is an apple,  seĝo is a chair, krajono is a pencil, kuniklo is a rabbit, arbo is a tree, lando is a country

Clauses: Nominative and Accusative
In the accusative an -n is added
La pupo de la infano- The doll of the child
La patrino la infanon nutras- The mother feeds the child

ĝis- till (as far as), al- to
Mi iras ĝis la ĝardeno- I go as far as the garden
Ili iras al la restoracio- I go to the restaurant

Mia frato amas mian filinon pli ol mian filon- translates into My brother loves my daughter more than my son.
Mi amas mian filinon pli ol mian filo- translates into I love my daughter more than my son.

La adjectivo- add an -a to the noun
oro- gold, ora- golden
ligno- wood, ligna- wooden
ĉielo- heaven, ĉiela- heavenly
tuj- at once, tuja- instant
en- in, ena- inter
tro- too (much), troa- excessive

ĝentila knabo- a polite boy
hela stelo- a bright star

pli- more, plej- most
forta- strong, pli forta- stronger, plej forta- strongest
dolĉa- sweet, pli dolĉa – sweeter, plej dolĉa- sweetest

Degree may be expressed by suffixes eg and et:
varma- warm, varmeta- lukewarm, varmega- hot

Pronomoj- pronouns
Mi- I, Vi- you, Li- he, ŝi- she, ĝi- it, Ni- we, Ili- they
Pocessive pronouns
Mia- Mine, Via- Yours, Lia- his, ŝia-hers, ĝia- it’s, Nia- ours, Ilia- theirs
Ci- thou, Cia- thy, thine
Si- him/herself,itself, themself, Sia- his/herself’s
Plurals- add a -j

Ilia domo- their house, iliaj domoj- their houses
Miaj krajonoj- my pencils
Ili diras al si- they said to themselves
ĉiu por si- each for himself

Oni devus pensi bone- One ought to think well.
Oni diras ke voyaĝo estos tre interessa- they say that the journey will be very interesting.

La Verbo- Transitive: cause an action to be done to a person, object either concrete or abstract. A word which receives which receives the direct action of a transitive verb, receives also the accusative ending. Intransitive: Actions that begin and end with the doer, has no object or passive voice.
12 word endings, 6 inflections, 1 auxillary verb

Infinitive ends in -I
Esti- to be, legi- to read, dormi- to sleep

Present tense ends in -as
Estas- is, legas- reads, dormas- sleeps

Past tense ends in -is
Estis- was, legis- read, dormis- slept

future tense ends in -os
Estos- will be, legos- will read, dormos- will sleep

Conditional tense ends in -us
Estus- would be, legus- would read, dormus- would sleep

Imperative tense ends in -u
Estu- be, legu- read, dormu- sleep

I am, you are, he is- Mi estas, vi estas, li estas

Impersonal verbs express fact/ action:
pluvas- rains, neĝas- snows, frostas- freezes

Participoj- Participles
Active: action being performed
Present- -ant-
Past- -int-
Future- -ont-

Passive: action being received
Present- -at-
Past- -it-
Future- -ot-

Mi skribas- I write, am writing
Mi estas skribanta- I am writing
Mi skribis- I wrote, did write
Mi estas skribinta- I have written, been writing
Mi estas skribonta- I am to write, am about to write

Vi ludas- you play
Vi ludis- you played
Vi estis ludanta- you were playing
Vi estis ludinta- you had played
Vi estis ludonta- you were about to play

Li laboras- He works
Li estos laboranta- he will be working
Li estos laboronta- he will be about to work

Mi estas helpata- I am helped
Mi estas helpita- I have been helped
Vi estis helpata- you were helped
Vi estis helpota- you were about to be helped
Li estos helpata- he will be helped
Li estos helpita- he will have been helped
Li estos helpota- he will be about to be helped

Trilingual Practice Diary

I have just recently started writing in a very sweet moleskine reporter notebook and in it, I’ve been creating a dialogue in English, Spanish and French to myself and practice for when I encounter the speakers of these languages. I am fluent and native in English and Spanish and then I write in French. It’s also very useful to compare these languages, their  cognates are easy to recognize along with sentence structures. I didn’t think I could really form any phrases until I picked up my pen to my notebook in all honesty. It took me a couple of weeks to get to this point, but using my knowledge of every memrise and textbook vocabulary and dialogues I’ve read, I can say a lot more than I imagined.

It’s a very useful tool, I recommend taking every sentence you write  first in your native language and thinking about how that sentence is said in the other language and then write it next. And then if you know another, write another sentence in that language.

As far as my goals go, it’s mostly to stop using bing as a dictionary. When I don’t know how to say a particular phrase it builds such amazement to me. I’ll get curious as to how it is said and then I get to the internet.. so I need to keep studying!

c: