Learn Esperanto for a week (Part 1)

I’ve been using Esperanto For Americans, Duolingo and Lernu this week to gain a familiarity with the constructed international language Esperanto. Through association and recognizing similarities in other languages in Esperanto, it’s been fairly easy.

La Gramatiko- La vorto kaj la radiko (the grammar, the word and the root)
There are four word classes in Esperanto: Primary, Simple, Compound and Foreign.

La Artikulo- the article is always “La” and La Substantivo- the noun always ends in O
La Patro- the father, La lampo- the lamp, La plumo- the pen, La tablo- the table, La hundo- the dog, La papero- the paper

La fiziko estas scienco- Physics is a science
Tiel blanka kiel la neĝo- As white as snow
Venu je la oka hora- Come at 8 o’clock

No indefinite article- pomo is an apple,  seĝo is a chair, krajono is a pencil, kuniklo is a rabbit, arbo is a tree, lando is a country

Clauses: Nominative and Accusative
In the accusative an -n is added
La pupo de la infano- The doll of the child
La patrino la infanon nutras- The mother feeds the child

ĝis- till (as far as), al- to
Mi iras ĝis la ĝardeno- I go as far as the garden
Ili iras al la restoracio- I go to the restaurant

Mia frato amas mian filinon pli ol mian filon- translates into My brother loves my daughter more than my son.
Mi amas mian filinon pli ol mian filo- translates into I love my daughter more than my son.

La adjectivo- add an -a to the noun
oro- gold, ora- golden
ligno- wood, ligna- wooden
ĉielo- heaven, ĉiela- heavenly
tuj- at once, tuja- instant
en- in, ena- inter
tro- too (much), troa- excessive

ĝentila knabo- a polite boy
hela stelo- a bright star

pli- more, plej- most
forta- strong, pli forta- stronger, plej forta- strongest
dolĉa- sweet, pli dolĉa – sweeter, plej dolĉa- sweetest

Degree may be expressed by suffixes eg and et:
varma- warm, varmeta- lukewarm, varmega- hot

Pronomoj- pronouns
Mi- I, Vi- you, Li- he, ŝi- she, ĝi- it, Ni- we, Ili- they
Pocessive pronouns
Mia- Mine, Via- Yours, Lia- his, ŝia-hers, ĝia- it’s, Nia- ours, Ilia- theirs
Ci- thou, Cia- thy, thine
Si- him/herself,itself, themself, Sia- his/herself’s
Plurals- add a -j

Ilia domo- their house, iliaj domoj- their houses
Miaj krajonoj- my pencils
Ili diras al si- they said to themselves
ĉiu por si- each for himself

Oni devus pensi bone- One ought to think well.
Oni diras ke voyaĝo estos tre interessa- they say that the journey will be very interesting.

La Verbo- Transitive: cause an action to be done to a person, object either concrete or abstract. A word which receives which receives the direct action of a transitive verb, receives also the accusative ending. Intransitive: Actions that begin and end with the doer, has no object or passive voice.
12 word endings, 6 inflections, 1 auxillary verb

Infinitive ends in -I
Esti- to be, legi- to read, dormi- to sleep

Present tense ends in -as
Estas- is, legas- reads, dormas- sleeps

Past tense ends in -is
Estis- was, legis- read, dormis- slept

future tense ends in -os
Estos- will be, legos- will read, dormos- will sleep

Conditional tense ends in -us
Estus- would be, legus- would read, dormus- would sleep

Imperative tense ends in -u
Estu- be, legu- read, dormu- sleep

I am, you are, he is- Mi estas, vi estas, li estas

Impersonal verbs express fact/ action:
pluvas- rains, neĝas- snows, frostas- freezes

Participoj- Participles
Active: action being performed
Present- -ant-
Past- -int-
Future- -ont-

Passive: action being received
Present- -at-
Past- -it-
Future- -ot-

Mi skribas- I write, am writing
Mi estas skribanta- I am writing
Mi skribis- I wrote, did write
Mi estas skribinta- I have written, been writing
Mi estas skribonta- I am to write, am about to write

Vi ludas- you play
Vi ludis- you played
Vi estis ludanta- you were playing
Vi estis ludinta- you had played
Vi estis ludonta- you were about to play

Li laboras- He works
Li estos laboranta- he will be working
Li estos laboronta- he will be about to work

Mi estas helpata- I am helped
Mi estas helpita- I have been helped
Vi estis helpata- you were helped
Vi estis helpota- you were about to be helped
Li estos helpata- he will be helped
Li estos helpita- he will have been helped
Li estos helpota- he will be about to be helped


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